Marx stressed capitalism and class conflict and Weber stressed rationalisation and bureaucracy. Marx and Weber identified problems within modern society. Marx had a generally optimistic view about the future and believed his theory could improve human conditions.
This article proposes an intqkretation of Kabre everyday secrecy that relies on indigenous understandings and attempts to moue beyond the functionalist assumptions of many pevious analyses of secrecy in Afnca. It also raises more general questions about theories of culture that ignore the everyday and that fail to come to terms with the negotiated meanings and the indirect types of communication that constitute everyday social relations.
The man who talks too much or who does not know how to keep a secret is for the African a being without value. Thus, there have been many exemplary analyses of the role that secret knowledge plays in secret societies and cults of initiation Bellman ; Ebin ; Griaule ; Kratz ; La Fontaine ; Leiris ; MacCormack ; Murphy ; Ottenberg ; Schlossin worship at spirit shrines Apter ; Gottlieb ; Griaule ; Schlossin the installation of kings and priests Apter ; Middletonand so on.
Direct discussion of the subject must remain hidden. This is true even when, as is often the case, all parties have full knowledge of the "facts" of the case.
It is the largely neglected role of secrecy in the everyday that I address here, through an analysis of a particular West African society, the Kabre Kabiye of northern Togo.
My own attention to the role and importance of secrecy in Kabre was slow in coming. It was not until my third field trip, after having already spent 21 months among Kabre, that I became aware of its significance. CopyrightAmerican Anthropological Association. Thus, since one of the major foci of my field research was Kabre ritual, secrecy was not something to which my attention was naturally drawn.
For it is in the everyday encounters, the seemingly casual conversations of individuals-in greeting one another, in gossiping about others, in responding to the demands of elders-that secret communication is manifested. And these are the conversational contexts that, among the Kabre, were the most difficult for me to understand.
To fully grasp these exchanges requires a detailed knowledge of the history of individuals and of the community, for these histories are often drawn on and alluded to only through a word or a phrase. Nevertheless, once having discovered that much everyday discourse conceals as much as it reveals, I became quite able not only to note the prevalence of this communicative style but also to sit down with Kabre and talk about its meaning and the contexts in which it is used.
These discussions were often indirect. As such, this analysis attempts to attend more closely to indigenous conceptions than many of the previous analyses of secrecy in African societies.
Those analyses are of four general types. The first, structural-functionalist, has regarded secrecy as enhancing the educational role of initiation societies or as helping to set up crosscutting ties among political units Fulton ;Little; Watkins The second, Marxist, has-seen secrecy as a means of social control in a system of power relations, as a way in which elders maintain their privileged position by withholding esoteric knowledge from juniors La Fontaine ; Murphy The fourth, semiotic, has sought to analyze the role played by secrecy in systems of communication, describing its formal, narrative character and its use of figurative speech Bellman Language and the Pragmatics of EverydayLife Consonant with the recent shift in social inquiry, from a strict focus on norms and institutional structures to one on individual agency Giddens ,;Ortnerthe everyday has emerged as a domain of significant anthropological attention.
This recent ferment in culture theory has led certain analysts to focus on the role of language-both formal and informal-in constituting social relations.
In a recent book of essays on societies of the Pacific Brenneis and Myersfor example, the authors argue that it is forms of speech, rather than institutionalized structures, that are responsible for the ongoing production and reproduction of social and political life.Plantation Society and Creole Society There is a vast range of cultural diversity in the Caribbean today.
In this paper, I would be discussing the similarities and differences found between the plantation society model and the Creole society model.
While social exchange theory is found in economics and psychology, it was first developed by the sociologist George Homans, who wrote about it in an essay titled "Social Behavior as Exchange." Later, sociologists Peter Blau and Richard Emerson further developed the theory.
The low availability of extension services, tools and inputs are clearly one reason for the slow evolution of agricultural methods Role of Livestock in the Kara Farming System The role of livestock in the Kara cultivation system is extremely important.
The Tappan brothers broke away from his Anti-Slavery Society because of his attacks on the Constitution and the prominent role of women in the organization. For 10 points name this American abolitionist known for his newspaper The Liberator.;;(William) (Lloyd) Garrison Art;;At the extreme left, a group of two men, a woman and her child wind.
The subject index is self-devised and is intended as a first and global indication of subjects with categories for general, religion and philosophy, culture and society, politics, economics, law, education, anthropology, medical care and health services, rural and urban planning and geography, language and literature, and history and biography.
Most Cited Dogecoin Publications. These publications mention Dogecoin even if they are not primarily focused on that cryptocurrency. Last updated October 30th, leslutinsduphoenix.com 1 cites. leslutinsduphoenix.com Researching Sociology.