Philosophy of Mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functionsmental properties, consciousnessand their relationship to the physical bodyparticularly the brain. Gestalt Psychology is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Function[ edit ] Spindle neurons are relatively large cells that may allow rapid communication across the relatively large brains of great apeselephantsand cetaceans.
Although rare in comparison to other neurons, spindle neurons are abundant, and large, in humans. However, the concentration of spindle cells has been measured to be three times higher in cetaceans in comparison to humans.
Their restriction among the primates to great apes leads to the hypothesis that they developed no earlier Neuron disorders 15—20 million years ago, prior to the divergence of orangutans from the African great apes.
The discovery of spindle neurons in diverse whale species   has led to the suggestion that they are "a possible obligatory neuronal adaptation in very large brains, permitting fast information processing and transfer along highly specific projections and that evolved in relation to emerging social behaviors.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message InProfessor John Allmana neuroscientistand colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report  on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex ACC of hominids, but not in any other species.
Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and bonobos Pan paniscus than the spindle neurons of the common chimpanzeegorillaand orangutan. Allman and his colleagues  have delved beyond the level of brain infrastructure to investigate how spindle neurons function at the superstructural level, focusing on their role as 'air traffic controllers' for emotions.
Allman's team proposes that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain.
Specifically, Allman's team  found signals from the ACC are received in Brodmann's area 10in the frontal polar cortex, where regulation of cognitive dissonance disambiguation between alternatives is thought to occur.
According to Allman, this neural relay appears to convey motivation to act, and concerns the recognition of error. In humans, intense emotion activates the anterior cingulate cortex, as it relays neural signals transmitted from the amygdala a primary processing center for emotions to the frontal cortexperhaps by functioning as a sort of lens to focus the complex texture of neural signal interference patterns[ citation needed ].
The ACC is also active during demanding tasks requiring judgment and discrimination, and when errors are detected by an individual.
During difficult tasks, or when experiencing intense love, anger, or lust, activation of the ACC increases.
In brain imaging studies, the ACC has specifically been found to be active when mothers hear infants cry, underscoring its role in affording a heightened degree of social sensitivity.
The ACC is a relatively ancient cortical region, and is involved with many autonomic functions, including motor and digestive functions, while also playing a role in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. The diminished olfactory function of humans, compared to other primates, may be related to the fact that spindle cells located at crucial neural network hubs have only two dendrites rather than many, resulting in reduced neurological integration.
This fronto-insular cortex is closely connected to the insulaa region that is roughly the size of a thumb in each hemisphere of the human brain.
The insula and fronto-insular cortex are part of the insular cortexwherein the elaborate circuitry associated with spatial awareness are found, and where self-awareness and the complexities of emotion are thought to be generated and experienced.
Moreover, this region of the right hemisphere is crucial to navigation and perception of three-dimensional rotations. Spindle neuron concentrations[ edit ] ACC[ edit ] The largest number of ACC spindle neurons are found in humans, fewer in the gracile great apes, and fewest in the robust great apes.
In both humans and bonobos they are often found in clusters of 3 to 6 neurons. They are found in humans, bonoboscommon chimpanzeesgorillasorangutanssome cetaceansand elephants. In contrast to the higher number of spindle cells found in the ACC of the gracile bonobos and chimpanzees, the number of fronto-insular spindle cells was far higher in the cortex of robust gorillas no data for Orangutans was given.
Dorsolateral PFC[ edit ] Von Economo neurons have been located in the Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of humans  and elephants. Altered spindle neuron states have been implicated in both schizophrenia and autism, but research into these correlations remains at a very early stage.
Frontotemporal dementia involves loss of mostly spindle neurons.Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects can include physical problems and problems with behavior and learning.
Human Brain - Neuroscience - Cognitive Science The Human Brain is the most Complex Processer of Information on the leslutinsduphoenix.com ability to Process Information and Store Information,, is what makes us leslutinsduphoenix.comation Defines us, Information Controls us, Information Teaches us.
Know your Processor, understand the Software (), and understand the Hardware (). INTRODUCTION. Pathologies that affect the spinal cord are diverse. In addition to trauma, common etiologies of myelopathy include autoimmune, infectious, neoplastic, vascular, and hereditary-degenerative diseases.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species.
Birds have been shown to have imitative resonance behaviors and neurological evidence suggests the presence. Information from one neuron flows to another neuron across a leslutinsduphoenix.com synapse is a small gap separating neurons.
The synapse consists of: a presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria and other cell organelles, a postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters and, a synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic endings. Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma (or body), gradually tapering into a single apical axon in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite.
Other neurons tend to have many dendrites, and the polar-shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique.