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Although a minority of free Southerners owned slaves, free Southerners of all classes nevertheless defended the institution of slavery  — threatened by the rise of free labor abolitionist movements in the Northern states— as the cornerstone of their social order.
In there were aroundslaveholders in a total free Southern population of about six million. Among slaveholders, the concentration of slave ownership was unevenly distributed.
Perhaps around 7 percent of slaveholders owned roughly three-quarters of the slave population. The largest slaveholders, generally owners of large plantations, represented the top stratum of Southern society.
They benefited from economies of scale and needed large numbers of slaves on big plantations to produce cotton, a highly profitable labor-intensive crop.
Yet poor whites and small farmers generally accepted the political leadership of the planter elite. Several factors helped explain why slavery was not under serious threat of internal collapse from any move for democratic change initiated from the South.
First, given the opening of new territories in the West for white settlement, many non-slaveowners also perceived a possibility that they, too, might own slaves at some point in their life. Above, this famous photo of a slave, Gordondeeply scarred from whipping by an overseer, was distributed by abolitionists to illustrate what they saw as the barbarism of Southern society.
Second, small free farmers in the South often embraced racismmaking them unlikely agents for internal democratic reforms in the South. White racism in the South was sustained by official systems of repression such as the "slave codes" and elaborate codes of speech, behavior, and social practices illustrating the subordination of blacks to whites.
For example, the " slave patrols " were among the institutions bringing together southern whites of all classes in support of the prevailing economic and racial order.
Serving as slave "patrollers" and "overseers" offered white southerners positions of power and honor. Slave "patrollers" and "overseers" also won prestige in their communities.
Policing and punishing blacks who transgressed the regimentation of slave society was a valued community service in the South, where the fear of free blacks threatening law and order figured heavily in the public discourse of the period.
Southern tradesmen often depended on the richest planters for steady work. Such dependency effectively deterred many white non-slaveholders from engaging in any political activity that was not in the interest of the large slaveholders. Furthermore, whites of varying social class, including poor whites and "plain folk" who worked outside or in the periphery of the market economy and therefore lacked any real economic interest in the defense of slavery might nonetheless be linked to elite planters through extensive kinship networks.
Since inheritance in the South was often unequitable and generally favored eldest sonsit was not uncommon for a poor white person to be perhaps the first cousin of the richest plantation owner of his county and to share the same militant support of slavery as his richer relatives.
Finally, there was no secret ballot at the time anywhere in the United States — this innovation did not become widespread in the U.
For a typical white Southerner, this meant that so much as casting a ballot against the wishes of the establishment meant running the risk of being socially ostracized.
Increasingly dependent on the North for manufactured goods, for commercial services, and for loans, and increasingly cut off from the flourishing agricultural regions of the Northwest, they faced the prospects of a growing free labor and abolitionist movement in the North.
Davis refutes the argument that Southern culture was different from that of Northern states or that it was a cause of the war, stating that "Socially and culturally the North and South were not much different.
They prayed to the same deity, spoke the same language, shared the same ancestry, sang the same songs. National triumphs and catastrophes were shared by both. Slavery demarked not just their labor and economic situations, but power itself in the new republic.
Southerners waged a vitriolic response to political change in the North. Slaveholding interests sought to uphold their constitutional rights in the territories and to maintain sufficient political strength to repulse "hostile" and "ruinous" legislation.
Behind this shift was the growth of the cotton textile industry in the North and in Europe, which left slavery more important than ever to the Southern economy.
They saw a vast growing abolitionist movement after the success of The Liberator in by William Lloyd Garrison. The fear was a race war by blacks that would massacre whites especially in Black Belt counties where whites were a small minority.
Searching for Biblical passages endorsing slavery and forming economic, sociological, historical and scientific arguments, slavery went from being a "necessary evil" to a "positive good". The First an Inferior Race: The Latter Its Normal Condition—setting out the arguments the title would suggest—was an attempt to apply scientific support to the Southern arguments in favor of race-based slavery.
As industrial capitalism gained momentum in the North, Southern writers emphasized whatever aristocratic traits they valued but often did not practice in their own society: This supported their argument that slavery provided a more humane society than industrial labor.
He advocated enslaving Northern factory workers, for their own benefit. Abraham Lincoln, on the other hand, denounced such Southern insinuations that Northern wage earners were fatally fixed in that condition for life.
To Free Soilers, the stereotype of the South was one of a diametrically opposite, static society in which the slave system maintained an entrenched anti-democratic aristocracy.The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to [c] The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S.
history. . War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and leslutinsduphoenix.com is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.
Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of . Check Out Our Causes of the American Civil War Essay.
rights of the states, slavery in different territories, fight between Non-slave and Slave State proponents, and slavery and control of the government by the southern politicians.
These causes, looked into deeply, bring out the reasons for the American Civil War. In-fights and feuds. At the start of the Civil War, at least 4 million slaves and their descendants were forced to live and work on the Southern plantations. In contrast, industry ruled the economy of the North and less emphasis was on agriculture, though even that was more diverse.
Major Cause Of The Civil War Fights Between Slave And Non Slave Proponents Causes of the Civil War John Brown’s Raid vs. Industrial Revolution John Brown’s Raid was a more influential cause to the civil war than the Industrial Revolution.
The appeal to states' rights is of the most potent symbols of the American Civil War, but confusion abounds as to the historical and present meaning of this federalist principle.
The concept of states' rights had been an old idea by