References and Further Reading 1. I do not expect to see anything like it again. Mill established this rule over English thought through his writings in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and current affairs. One can say with relative security, looking at the breadth and complexity of his work, that Mill was the greatest nineteenth century British philosopher.
Select Secondary Sources 1. One rare, short, but not unimportant analysis occurs in The Order of Things. There, Foucault maintains that modern ethical thought attempts to derive moral obligations from human nature and yet modern thought also holds that human nature can never be, given the fact of human finitude, fully given to human knowledge.
Consequently, modern thought is incapable of coherently formulating a set of moral obligations OT ; see also PPC This argument is, essentially, one piece of his larger attack on modern humanism and its conception of the human being as subject, a being that supplies for itself the foundations of knowledge, value, and freedom.
Discipline and Punish and the first volume of The History of Sexuality further this line of criticism, insisting on the historical constitution of the subject by discursive practices and techniques of power see, for example, FL 67, PKEW3DP It is surprising to many commentators, then, that by Foucault elaborated a framework for his work that grants self-constitution considerable importance.
These focal points are studied along three axes: Foucault never did articulate a clear position on the conceptual fit between his critique of the modern subject and his account of ethics.
Nevertheless, he does provide some clues as to the nature of his mature position. Late in his life he admits that his earlier work was too insistent on the formation of subjectivity by discursive practices and power-relations EW1 Now, his focus is on the subject as both constituted and self-constituting, or the point at which discursive practices and power-relations dovetail with ethics.
Of course, this does not decisively resolve the problem, but it does suggest a rereading of his earlier works more conducive to the notion of self-constitution.
In fact, in later writings and interviews Foucault supports this interpretation when he explains that all the axes of analysis existed in a confused manner EW1 ; he even retrospectively interprets his work as fitting one or more of those axes EW1 By admitting that, first, all three axes of analysis existed in earlier works, and, second, that the goal of his work is to study the connection of knowledge and power with ethics, Foucault suggests that there is no ethical turn.
However, it does appear to be the case that Foucault is suggesting that he is best read backwards rather than forwards. There, he designates ethics as one of the three primary areas of morality.
In addition to ethics, morality consists of both a moral code and the concrete acts of moral agents. The latter refers to the actions of historically real persons insofar as those actions comply or fail to comply with, obey or resist, or respect or disrespect the values and rules prescribed to them by prescriptive agencies.
In addition to a moral code and the real behaviors of individuals, Foucault claims that morality also consists of a third area, namely, ethics. He commonly and pithily defines it as a relation of the subject to itself, but a more technical definition of ethics is the conduct required of an individual so as to render its own actions consistent with a moral code and standards of moral approval.
For Foucault, conduct is a category that is broader than moral agency and includes both non-moral actions and the exercising of non-agential capacities for example, attitudes, demeanor, and so forth. Ethical conduct, then, consists of the actions performed and capacities exercised intentionally by a subject for the purpose of engaging in morally approved conduct.
Suppose, for example, that an individual adopts the prescription of sexual fidelity to her partner.
In this case, ethics concerns not her morally satisfactory conduct that directly satisfies her duty of being faithful to her partner, but rather the conduct through which she enables or brings herself to behave in a way that is sexually faithful to her partner.John Knox published The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women.
Free Essay: In the year , John Stuart Mill published a controversial essay, “The Subjection of Women”, that advocated equality between sexes in a.
THE DIALOGUES OF LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA BOOK I TO LUCILIUS ON PROVIDENCE+. Why, though there is a Providence, some Misfortunes befall Good Men. The Moral Equivalent of War William James Introduction. The war against war is going to be no holiday excursion or camping party. The military feelings are too deeply grounded to abdicate their place among our ideals until better substitutes are offered than the glory and shame that come to nations as well as to individuals from the ups and downs of politics and the vicissitudes of trade.
comprehensive and partially annotated list of books about Herbert Marcuse, compiled by Harold Marcuse. The Catholic Church is subjected to a great deal of suspicion, if not outright scorn, when it comes to its treatment of women.
Does the Church treat women as "second class"? In short, does the Catholic Church hate women? Few people would put the question that strongly, yet .